Below is the marine data prepared by the Communications Division.

  • Fact #1 Learn how to fillet fish

    Filleting fish is a simple technique to learn and is ideal for incorporating into your cooking practice. By following the instructions outlined in this document, you will achieve two bone-free and spine-free cuts of meat. By the end, your meat will be clean and ready to cook. Remember to remove the scales, gills, and viscera of the fish before starting. Below is a basic illustration of a fish to help you identify its parts.

  • Fact #2 Selection of fish and seafood

    Aquatic products for human consumption must be handled properly and refrigerated immediately upon acquisition; otherwise, they will begin to decompose rapidly. Consuming decomposed food can be detrimental to human health. For this reason, obtaining quality and fresh food can make a significant difference not only in your well-being but also in the enjoyment of the food.

  • Fact #3 Storage of fish and seafood

    Incorrect storage practices for fish and seafood lead to contamination and immediate spoilage of these foods. This causes the release of acids and oxidized fats through bacterial action and reactions synthesized by enzymes, which could harm health. One way these results are reflected is when the fish or seafood emits a foul odor. Seafood for consumption should not have a strong smell or, at the very least, should have a pleasant odor. Otherwise, it may be possible that the product is decomposing, as an unpleasant smell is often an indicator of this characteristic. Carrying out an appropriate storage process, depending on the fish or seafood acquired, can be crucial to safely preserve the food before its preparation and subsequent consumption.

  • Fact #36 Clean streets, clean reefs

    The Marine Advisory Service of the Sea Grant College Program at the University of Puerto Rico invites all Puerto Ricans to join the campaign: Clean Streets, Clean Beaches. Thousands of residents and visitors from around the world visit our beaches seeking recreation and relaxation. To make this experience enjoyable and meaningful for everyone, it is important to respect and protect our coastal resources by maintaining beaches and coral reefs in optimal conditions.

  • Fact #37 You can help protect our corals

    Each coral colony is composed of small animals called polyps, close relatives of anemones. Touching, picking up, standing or sitting on, kicking a coral, and turning it over can crush and kill these animals.

  • Fact #38 If you are not part of the solution... you are part of the problem

    To help the environment, you have to get involved! The suggestions we offer below will help you become an effective citizen in your efforts to protect and preserve our valuable natural resources.

  • Fact #39 Center for Marine Education and Information Resources

    The Resource Center was founded in 1980 for marine education and information. The Center operates under the auspices of the Sea Grant Program. It provides marine information services to all levels of education, from the public to private systems.

  • Fact #42 Careers in Marine Biology

    Marine biology is a broad professional field that includes the study of organisms living in and near the ocean. Marine biologists study the factors affecting these organisms, including their habitats, from coastal areas to the depths of the sea.

  • Fact #43 Careers in Chemical and Physical Oceanography

    Physical oceanography involves the study of the physical properties of the ocean, such as wave patterns, tides, and changes in the contours of the seafloor and beaches. Chemical oceanography is the study of the properties of seawater and the chemical processes that occur in the sea.

  • Fact #44 Careers in Ocean Engineering

    The use of the ocean is constantly increasing, from increased fishing to the extraction of oil and minerals and the exploration of the deepest point in the ocean about seven miles below the surface. The need for ocean engineers to develop solutions to problems encountered in work and studies in marine environments is growing rapidly. Ocean engineering is one of the fastest-growing careers related to the sea.

  • Fact #45 Careers in Medicine and Health

    Modern exploration of the oceans has led to the discovery of new organisms and compounds that can be used to improve human health. At the same time, our use of the deep oceans, both for exploitation and recreation, has created the need for medical professionals capable of addressing cases such as decompression sickness.

  • Fact #46 Careers in Management: Planning, Public Policy, and Laws on Marine Resources

    Management, publication, public policy outlining, and the law of natural resources are among the fastest-growing careers. Professionals in these fields use the information provided by scientists, economists, sociologists, politicians, and community members to develop policies, laws, and regulations that create a balance between the needs of the community and industry regarding long-term environmental health.

  • Fact #47 Technical Careers

    There are many technical careers related to the marine environment. Many of these provide support to marine biologists, engineers, medical personnel, oceanographers, and resource management specialists. Marine technicians include those responsible for marine cargo and transportation, captains, pilots, and navigators of marine vessels. Others include those who repair, maintain, and build ships, engines, and industrial machinery for work and exploration in the seas. Careers related to customs, cargo, and vessel inspection, as well as compliance with maritime and coastal laws requiring legal knowledge, are also present. Other technical careers are related to the recreational use of marine resources, such as marina management, SCUBA instruction, and positions as crew members on a ship.

  • Fact #48 Water Supplies in Puerto Rico: History and Issues

    From the 1950s, dozens of US corporations established factories on Puerto Rican soil, not only for economic benefits, the quality of labor, and developing infrastructure but also due to the availability of excellent aquatic resources. Many factories, dependent on good water reserves for their operation, were established in northern Puerto Rico, where our most abundant rivers and streams are located. In fact, between the municipalities of Aguadilla and Carolina and drawing an imaginary line from Moca to Bayamón is the North Aquifer, from which more than 170 million gallons of water are extracted per day for public, agricultural, and industrial use.

  • Fact #49 Mangroves and Oil Pollution

    The mangrove is one of the most common and productive botanical communities in the tropics. Our mangroves filter pollutants, produce land through the accumulation of organic matter, help stabilize coasts by safeguarding them from erosion, and provide habitats for a wide variety of plant and animal species.

  • Fact #50 Eutrophication and Organic Discharges

    Eutrophication is a natural process that occurs in all bodies of water. The gradual accumulation of nutrients and organic biomass, accompanied by an increase in photosynthesis and a decrease in the average depth of the water column (caused by sediment accumulation), is a natural process.

  • Fact #51 Sedimentation: Enemy of Our Waters

    About 30 years ago, various federal and state agencies warned the government of Puerto Rico that the metropolitan area would soon lack a supply of drinking water. Through numerous forums, these agencies explained to both the public and government representatives that the cause lay in sedimentation resulting from the erosion of our soil.

  • Fact #52 Treatment for Used Waters

    Used water is the potable water we contaminate through our usage. Usage can be domestic, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and public. Used waters consist of a liquid part and a solid part. In the solids, we find organic solids (fats, proteins, fecal material), inorganic solids (sand, gravel, soil), and living microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi). There are also gases (oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide). Discharges of used waters, treated or not, can create serious problems of aquatic pollution in the body of water that receives them. Some of the main problems include eutrophication due to nutrient enrichment, high concentrations of suspended solids (SS), and a high demand for biochemical oxygen (BOD).

  • Fact #54 Used Waters in Puerto Rico: Threat to Health and the Environment

    The most serious and common problems related to used waters and septic tanks (sanitary sewers) in communities are: bad odors, overflows of used waters in the community, pollution of surface water bodies (rivers, wetlands, and the ocean), and underground (wells).

  • Fact #57 Community Coastal Development

    The Coastal Community Development Project is one of the components of the Sea Grant College Program at the University of Puerto Rico. Over the past four decades, Puerto Rico’s coastal zone has suffered the impact of urban sprawl, and communities in these areas are exposed to the pressures that this entails. This project is an effort by the Sea Grant Program to extend its marine education and training expertise to coastal communities. The primary mission of this project is to advise and enhance training efforts in coastal communities related to sustainable economic development; the valuation and conservation of natural resources; the impacts of urban sprawl and smart development.

  • Fact #58 How to Process Edible Aquatic Products that Meet FDA Requirements

    The purpose of this publication, based on the regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products” (Federal Register (Vol. 60 No. 242) of December 18, 1995), is to guide processors on how to comply with these regulations, which make the use of the HACCP preventive system and monitoring of eight sanitation conditions and practices mandatory during the processing of edible aquatic products. This regulation does not cover practices of beheading, evisceration, or freezing carried out solely to keep the regulated product on the fishing vessel; the capture and transportation of “fish” that have not received any type of processing, and retail operations. To know all the requirements, it is recommended that the reader consult the regulation and the publication “Importing Edible Aquatic Products that Meet FDA Requirements.”

  • Fact #59 How to Import Edible Aquatic Products that Meet FDA Requirements

    The purpose of this publication, based on the regulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products” (Federal Register (Vol. 60 No. 242) of December 18, 1995), is to guide processors on how to comply with these regulations, which make the use of the HACCP preventive system and monitoring of eight sanitation conditions and practices mandatory during the processing of edible aquatic products. This regulation does not cover practices of beheading, evisceration, or freezing carried out solely to keep the regulated product on the fishing vessel; the capture and transportation of “fish” that have not received any type of processing, and retail operations. To know all the requirements, it is recommended that the reader consult the regulation and the publication “Importing Edible Aquatic Products that Meet FDA Requirements.”

  • Fact #60 What Could It Be? Could It Be... Ciguatera?

    Ciguatera is a type of food poisoning that occurs when humans consume fish from coral reefs containing toxins produced in the marine environment. It is not related to the presence of bacteria, environmental pollution, or decomposition processes. It typically occurs in tropical and sub-tropical zones located between latitudes 35 N and 35 S, but the availability of tropical fish in the international market tied to the increased consumption of fishery products and the influx of visitors in potentially dangerous areas has made ciguatera currently classified as a global health problem. The Spanish colonizers were the first to describe the clinical manifestations of ciguatera and incorrectly attributed them to poisonings caused by ingesting the snail Cittarium pica, known as cigua by the indigenous people in Cuba. Hence the origin of its name, which is the same in Spanish and English.

  • Fact #61 Mercury in Fish and Seafood

    If you remove the slice of barbecue shark from your mouth for fear that it may contain an excessive amount of mercury, you are probably being overly cautious and there may be no reason to worry. But beware, consuming these and other types of fish can pose a real threat to the health of a family member. Therefore, it is important to know who is at risk and what these individuals can do to reduce the chances of mercury poisoning.

  • Fact #62 The Presence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Certain Species of Cultivated Fish

    Polychlorinated biphenyls? It’s likely that when you hear the name of this industrial contaminant for the first time, it sounds strange. But these contaminants are far from rare. On the contrary, they can be found in unsuspected places, such as the tasty salmon you ordered at that elegant restaurant on your last trip to Europe.

  • Fact #63 Raw Oysters and Clams: The Ins and Outs of Their Consumption

    Oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops are mollusks known as bivalves. Their bodies are protected by two shells or valves manufactured by themselves. The two shells can be of the same size or unequal, the generally rough texture of the exterior contrasting with the smooth and pearly interior. In their adult stage, they lead a boring life. Oysters and mussels remain permanently fixed to a substrate, and clams bury and unearth themselves in the sand, thus adding a touch of fun to their monotonous life. The most cosmopolitan are scallops, which with the rapid opening and closing of their shells propel themselves from side to side.

  • Fact #64 When Fish Does Not Receive Adequate Refrigeration: Histamine Poisoning

    Redness and inflammation in the eyes, itching of the skin, tingling, and a metallic taste in the mouth and lips… If you have experienced any of these symptoms after consuming marine fish and believe that this means you are allergic to these foods, you may be mistaken.

  • Fact #65 If Marine Products Are Prohibited

    Considered delicacies by many, crustaceans and marine fish, as well as eggs, milk, peanuts, nuts, soy, and wheat, have been identified as the foods primarily responsible for 90% of allergies. On the other hand, over 160 other foods, including fruits and vegetables, have been identified as possible sources of allergic reactions. It is estimated that approximately 11 million people in the United States suffer from allergic reactions to certain foods; about a hundred of them die annually.

  • Fact #66 New Environmental Crimes in Puerto Rico

    Law No. 149 of June 18, 2004, amended the Penal Code of Puerto Rico from 1974, and among its new articles included environmental crimes, an action that has been on the rise on the island. Before discussing the crimes, we must bear in mind that the Law in Puerto Rico clearly establishes what is known as the Principle of Legality. This principle orders the Judiciary Branch not to criminally prosecute a person if the act committed by that person is not described as a crime in the Penal Code or in a special law. It is also established that the imposed penalty must be proportionate to the crime and cannot attack human dignity.

  • Fact #67 Fishing and Protecting Our Fishery Resources

    If you still think that fishery resources are inexhaustible and have not changed your capture habits, you are risking that our future generations may not enjoy fishing. Maintaining past fishing attitudes is being irresponsible with future fishermen. Fish populations worldwide are dwindling and facing serious problems due to industrial growth, deforestation, loss of essential habitats, overfishing, and environmental pollution. It is also due, in part, to those users incapable of visualizing the urgent need for a responsible use and management of the environment and its resources.

  • Fact #68 Nutritional Benefits of the Lionfish

    The lionfish was an exotic species that could be found in luxurious aquariums and always on the plates of coastal inhabitants in the Indo-Pacific region and the Mediterranean. Recently, an invasion of this species on the west coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in the Caribbean Sea has been a cause for great concern. The lionfish has a great predatory capacity for native species and represents a threat to the biodiversity of these regions.

  • Fact #69 Invasive Species in the Coastal Waters of Florida: The Red Lionfish and the Common Lionfish

    Currently in the United States, the lionfish is distributed almost continuously in marine waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico to Cape Hatteras in North Carolina. Although the aquatic invasive species database of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) only mentions isolated reports of lionfish (Pterois spp.) in the waters of southeast Florida between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, these species have developed breeding populations from Florida to North Carolina. In the case of the Gulf of Mexico, not much is known about the reproduction of the lionfish. The lionfish was first reported in the Florida Keys in 2009 and in the north and east of the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Lionfish have been reported in the northeastern U.S., but these do not survive the cold winters of those waters.

Autorizado por la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones CEE-SA-16-893

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